For the employer:
- These tests can be administered at the job site.
- It's a simple process with a lower total cost
- Job applicants and employees can go to work immediately
- Fewer workmans comp claims and accidents
- Reduced workmans comp insurance fees
- Less absenteeism and tardiness
For the employee:
- Confidence among employees for the safety of the workplace
- Increased morale
- Productivity increases
Substitution of "clean" urine for ones own is difficult when the urine collection is observed, however, some creative donors go to great lengths to cover-up their drug use. Lifelike male prosthetics that dispense smuggled urine can be purchased and females can insert tubes containing clean urine sealed with cellophane into their body cavity that can be pierced to release the "clean" urine. Some donors have even introduced another person"s urine into their own bladder by injection or catheterization. More commonly, when the collection is not observed, donors smuggle a hidden container of clean urine into the collection room. Checking the urine temperature immediately after collection indicates substitution when the counterfeit sample has not been brought to body temperature. Compounding the matter, guaranteed drug free urine can be readily purchased on the Internet.
Yes, it is possible for a drug test to be positive for alcohol as a result of diabetes. Individuals who suffer from diabetes commonly exhibit renal malfunction that results in an excessive amount of glucose and protein in their urine. In the presence of yeast or bacteria, urinary glucose can be converted to alcohol by fermentation. Thus, a person with diabetes and who has a urinary tract infection might have alcohol in their urine in spite of an absence of alcohol consumption. A laboratory should test every specimen that is positive for alcohol for the presence of glucose and report the results of the test. When glucose is detected it is possible that the alcohol is a result of urinary glucose fermentation and not consumption. In the absence of the test for glucose or for bacteria, a simple procedure should be employed to test for fermentation; leave the specimen at room temperature for several hours and retest it. If the level increases, the specimen is undergoing fermentation. It is possible (although unusual) that the glucose is completely consumed by fermentation. This usually results in an extremely high urine alcohol level (>1%), pressurization of the specimen container and the smell of yeast. Urine specimens that exhibit an alcohol level of greater than 0.5% should be checked for evidence of fermentation.
The designation that a particular laboratory is "certified" assures the client that the laboratory adheres to specific quality standards set by the certifying body. Each of the three primary certifying agencies listed below has its own set of standards. Certification has a defined time limit and usually is granted for one or two years. Certification and re-certification require an on-site inspection of the laboratory by an inspection team. There is no legal requirement that a laboratory be certified, as long as it does not perform medical or federally mandated testing. While some laboratories carry multiple certifications, there are a number of labs doing business which are not certified by any agency. It is the purchaser of drug testing services who may require a particular certification to assure competency. The three primary certifying bodies are CLIA, SAMSHA and CAP. Their important characteristics are listed below. CLIA (Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act of 1988) 1. Inspections are performed every two years by an agency approved by the United States Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. 2. Certification is mandated for all laboratories performing medical tests. 3. There are no special requirements for chain of custody procedures. 4. No review of confirmation test procedures. SAMHSA (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration) 1. Inspections are performed two times per year by a SAMHSAA inspection team. 2. Certification is required for federally mandated urine drug testing programs. 3. Chain of custody and security requirements are imposed. 4. There are strict rules for the interpretation of results and the actions to be taken when donors test positive. 5. Certification is limited to only five drugs (amphetamines, opiates, cocaine, THC and PCP). CAP-FUDT (College of American Pathologists Forensic Urine Drug Testing) 1. The program was established jointly by the College of American Pathologists and the American Association of Clinical Chemistry. 2. Certification is voluntary. 3. CAP inspections are performed every two years and self-inspections are performed annually. 4. Collection, chain-of-custody and quality assurance guidelines are required in the standards. 5. Exemplary laboratories may receive certification â€œwith distinctionâ€. Selecting the Best Fit Laboratory If your drug testing program falls under federal rules (see http://workplace samsha.gov) you must use a SAMHSA certified laboratory. If some form of official action might be initiated, results must be â€œlegally defensibleâ€ and, therefore, either SAMHSA or CAP-FUDT are recommended. If testing is to involve more than the five federally mandated drugs, SAMSHA alone will not suffice. If the interpretation of results is to be limited to medical decision making, any CLIA certified laboratory may be appropriate. All purchasers of laboratory services should demand some form of certification to assure acceptable standards of accuracy.