Glossary of Terms and Phrases
- accompany the specimen to the laboratory
- be sent to employer
- be sent to MRO
- retained by collector
- provided to the donor as a receipt.
Street Names: Blow, Coke, Crack, Flake, Snow
Mode of Use: Snorting, intravenous injection, free-base (crack) smoking
Physiological Effects: Desirable effects of cocaine include euphoria, anorexia, and sexual stimulation. Direct cardiotoxic effects may be the contributory factor in cocaine-induced deaths.
Psychological Effects: Prolonged and intense use can lead to paranoia, hallucinations, and violent behavior. The central nervous system stimulation (rush) is followed by depression (crash). This rush and crash cycle is the principle reason for the development of chronic cocaine abuse.
Legally Obtained as: Cocaine is still used as a local anesthetic. Medicinal cocaine use is rarely found outside hospital settings because of the high potential for abuse, the difficulty maintaining the license to store cocaine, and the availability of suitable substitutes. Cocaine is not contained in any prescription medications from a pharmacy or in any over-the-counter medications. As late as 1986, an herbal tea sold under the name of Health Inca Tea contained enough cocaine to cause a positive urine test. The DEA continues to seize herbal teas containing cocaine.
Metabolism: Cocaine is metabolized to benzoylecgonine. The presence of benzoylecgonine is accepted evidence of cocaine use and can be detected in the urine for as long as 2-5 days.
Summary: Commonly used local topical anesthetics such as lidocaine, novocaine, and benzocaine are structurally unrelated to cocaine and its metabolites and do not result in a positive screen or confirmation. There are no known medications that cause a false positive screen or confirmation. Studies have shown that although cocaine can be absorbed through the skin, even intense exposure is insufficient to cause a positive urine test result.
Street Names: Weed, Doobie, Grass
Mode of Use: Smoking & ingestion
Physiological Effects: Munchies after use.
Psychological Effects: Euphoria
Legally Obtained as: Dronabinol and Marinol.
Metabolism: THC in marijuana is broken down into at least 5 different compounds (metabolites) that are excreted in the urine. The metabolite commonly in the greatest abundance (accounting for greater than 30% of all the metabolites) is carboxy-THC (THCC). The parent drug (THC) does not pass into the urine. The presence of marijuana metabolites in urine is accepted evidence of marijuana use.
Summary: There are no known drugs that cause false positive results either on the screen or confirmation test.
Heroin: Horse, H, Smack, White Lady, and Skag.
Morphine: Junk, Morphai, Morphium, and Morpho.
Mode of Use:
Heroin: Smoked, snorted, or injected.
Morphine: Oral ingestion, injected, suppositories, liquid.
Codeine: Oral ingestion, elixirs.
Hydrocodone: Oral ingestion.
Hydromorphone: Oral ingestion, elixirs, injection, and suppositories.
Oxycodone: Oral ingestion and elixirs.
Physiological Effects: Analgesia (pain relief), respiratory slowing and constipation are common effects for most users. Respiratory slowing, or even complete cessation, presents the greatest immediate risk associated with opiate abuse. Death due to complete respiratory arrest is common with overdoses. There is also the long-term risk of AIDS and other infectious diseases associated with illicit intravenous drug use. Tolerance is the property by which a dramatic increase in the dose is necessary to achieve the same effect. Tolerance begins to build after the initial dose, but is usually significant only after the second week of chronic use. Up to a 35 fold increase in dose may be necessary. Withdrawal symptoms begin 6-8 hours after the last dose and reach a peak at 36-72 hours.
Psychological Effects: Mental alterations are primarily sedation and euphoria, the heightened feeling of well-being. Long-term use leads to dependence (addiction) and tolerance.
Metabolism: In the body, heroin is converted to 6-Acetylmorphine (6-AM) within a few minutes. 6-AM is further metabolized to morphine within a few hours. Heroin usually contains 5-10% codeine because it is manufactured from opium, which contains morphine and codeine. Heroin itself is so rarely detected in the urine following use that laboratories do not normally test for it. 6-AM is a unique metabolite of heroin and is usually only detected during the first 12 hours after use. When present it is evidence of heroin use.
Summary: The terms narcotics and opiates are often used interchangeably but are not exactly the same. Narcotics are drugs that numb the senses and induce sleepiness. Some non-opiate drugs also have narcotic properties. Opiates are compounds derived from opium, the milky residue of the opium poppy plant. Opium contains morphine and codeine. The naturally occurring morphine and codeine can be altered in the laboratory to produce semi-synthetic opiates, of which there are many. The most notable semi-synthetics are heroin, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, and oxycodone. Poppy seeds contain enough codeine and morphine so that their consumption can cause both morphine and codeine to be detected in the urine. Poppy seed consumption rarely results in a morphine level greater than 2000 ng/mL, whereas use of heroin or morphine usually leads to much higher levels.
Background: Phencyclidine was first synthesized in 1926 and was used as an anesthetic for humans and animals. A number of toxic central nervous system effects were discovered over time and production was completely discontinued in 1978 due to the high rate of toxicity. It is currently only produced for research purposes and as a laboratory drug standard.
Legally Prescribed forms: There are currently no legal forms of the drug which are accepted for medical or veterinary use.
Illicit Use: PCP is usually snorted as a white powder or injected. It may also be smoked, often as a mixture with marijuana. Intravenous use and oral consumption are also possible. Street names are "angel dust", "hog" and "loveboat." It may be misrepresented by drug dealers as another hallucinogen, i.e. mescaline or THC.
Effects on the User: PCP is a strong hallucinogen. Auditory or visual illusions may develop. The drug may induce altered perception of time and distance. Desired effects may be exciting and dreamy.
Toxic Side Effects: Like dreams, there may also be terrifying nightmares of unpredictable duration. Flashbacks have been reported. The hallucinations may lead to irrational acts, which place the user in grave danger. Episodes of uncontrollable violence may develop. Long-lasting mental alterations may persist after the drug has been completely metabolized. Most commonly these take the form of depression, suicidal ideation, speech impairment, and social withdrawal. Actual physical addiction has not been proven with certainty.
Drug Testing Results: PCP is readily absorbed into the body's fat stores and may be detected for prolonged periods. Detection interval may be as long as two weeks following brief use and as long as 30 days for chronic abuse. High doses of the cough suppressant dextromethorphan may produce false positive screen results. However, confirmation by GC/MS will rule out this compound.